Jeff Lowder

Jeffery Jay Lowder

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Table of Contents

Metaphysical Naturalism

Christianity: Historical Criticism and Counter-Apologetics

Featured Editorials


See Also

Metaphysical Naturalism

NOTE: Metaphysical naturalism entails, but is broader than, atheism.

Atheism and Society (1997)

A discussion of the position of atheism within today's society--including how it affects people's day-to-day relationships. Particularly recommended if you're an atheist or agnostic.

Is Atheism Presumptuous? A Reply to Paul Copan (2000)

Lowder refutes Paul Copan's claim that Antony Flew's "presumption of atheism" is itself presumptuous.

In Defense of an Evidential Argument from Evil: A Reply to William Lane Craig (2016)

In a popular article about general arguments from evil against the existence of an all-powerful, all-knowing, and perfectly good God, William Lane Craig raises objections to such arguments that are consistent with those he earlier raised against Paul Draper's evidential pain-and-pleasure argument from evil in an oral debate with Draper in 1998. In this article Jeffrey Jay Lowder considers whether Craig's points have any force in rebutting Draper's writings on his pain-and-pleasure argument, ultimately concluding that they leave Draper's argument unscathed.

Is a Proof of the Nonexistence of a God Even Possible? (1998)

A common objection to atheism--one stated by many scholars and laymen, theists and nontheists--is that it is impossible to prove the nonexistence of God. Yet there are actually two ways to prove the nonexistence of something. One way is to prove that it cannot exist because its very concept is self-contradictory (e.g., square circles, married bachelors, etc.). The other way is by carefully looking and seeing. Both of these methods can and have been used to disprove various conceptions of God.

The Empirical Case for Metaphysical Naturalism (1999)

Lowder argues that the physical dependence of minds upon the brain, along with the argument from evil, can be used to construct an empirical case for metaphysical naturalism.

David Noebel on Atheism and Biological Evolution (2000)

A critical notice of David Noebel's book, Understanding the Times. I assess in detail Noebel's objections to atheism and biological evolution. Along the way I discuss such diverse topics as the argument from reasonable nonbelief, cosmic vs. personal meaning, methodological naturalism, abiogenesis and the origin of life, whether natural selection is a tautology, beneficial mutations, the fossil record, and punctuated equilibrium.

Summary and Assessment of the Craig-Jesseph Debate (1998)

A summary and assessment of the 1997 debate on the existence of God between William Lane Craig and Doug Jesseph. Lowder concludes that the overall debate was a draw (in terms of quality of argument), but that Craig won as far as the effectiveness of presentation was concerned.

Summary of the Kurtz-Craig Debate (2001)

A summary of the 2001 debate between Paul Kurtz and William Lane Craig on ethics without God.

Christianity: Historical Criticism and Counter-Apologetics

NOTE: Includes critiques of both Christian apologists (Josh McDowell and William Lane Craig) and critics of Christianity (Dennis McKinsey and William Edelen).

Empty Defense of an Empty Tomb: A Reply to Anne A. Kim's Misunderstandings (2012)

William Lane Craig has argued for the historicity of Jesus' empty tomb on the basis of ten lines of evidence. In response, Jeffery Jay Lowder argued that Craig had not yet shown that any of his ten items of evidence make the empty tomb more probable than not. Anne A. Kim has attempted to defend some of Craig's arguments against Lowder's objections, but as Lowder shows in this response to Kim, Kim has repeatedly misunderstood his points and attacked caricatures of his arguments rather than his actual arguments.

Historical Evidence and the Empty Tomb Story: A Reply to William Lane Craig (2001)

Lowder provides a point-by-point rebuttal to Craig's case for the empty tomb. Along the way, Lowder defends a naturalistic explanation of the empty tomb. He concludes that historians should be agnostic about the empty tomb story.

Was the Burial of Jesus a Temporary One, Because of Time Constraints? (2002) by Glenn Miller (Off Site)

Miller rebuts the hypothesis that Jesus' body was only temporarily stored in Joseph of Arimathea's tomb.

Reply to Glenn Miller on the Burial of Jesus (2002) by Richard Carrier

Carrier concludes that, despite Miller's objections, the relocation hypothesis is still a plausible one.

The Historicity of Jesus' Resurrection (1995) [ Index ]

A critical assessment of the arguments used by Christians and skeptics about the resurrection of Jesus.

How Not to Refute Biblical Infallibility: A Reply to William Edelen (2000)

Lowder responds to a recent attack on Biblical infallibility by William Edelen, arguing that every one of Edelen's objections are fallacious.

How Not to Refute the Historicity and Resurrection of Jesus: A Critique of Dennis McKinsey's Encyclopedia of Biblical Errancy (2001)

"Although McKinsey occasionally raises some good points concerning the Resurrection and the extrabiblical references to Jesus, they are often hidden within many more objections that are either irrelevant, fallacious, or both. Moreover, there are many important issues related to the historicity of Jesus and the Resurrection, which McKinsey ignores. ... Given these shortcomings in the sections on the historicity and resurrection of Jesus, I can't help but wonder what deficiencies exist in the rest of McKinsey's Encyclopedia. I do not recommend skeptics rely on McKinsey's scholarship without first independently verifying his claims in a reliable source."

Independent Confirmation and the Historicity of Jesus (1997)

Lowder argues that there is nothing intrinsically improbable about the mere existence of a man named Jesus; the New Testament alone should constitute prima facie evidence for the historicity of Jesus.

The Jury Is In: The Ruling on McDowell's "Evidence" (editor) [ Index ]

A comprehensive rebuttal to Josh McDowell's Evidence That Demands a Verdict, which many Christians mysteriously hail as a masterpiece of Christian apologetics. McDowell refuses to link to this critique.

Featured Editorials

Anti-Atheist Media Bias? (1998)

Many political and religious conservatives complain that American media is "liberal," "secular," or even "anti-Christian." But is this really true? Was the recent Wall Street Journal attack on the Campus Freethought Alliance just an anomaly? Or is the American media biased in favor of theism?

Government-Sanctioned National Day of Prayer? (1998)

On May 7, 1998, more than a million Americans reportedly observed the 47th annual National Day of Prayer. The theme was, "America, Return to God," and was based on Joel 2:12-13. In other words, we must repent of our sins and submit our lives to God. But what are the legal implications of government sponsorship of this religious observance?

The God of Terrorism (1998)

Pat Robertson recently predicted that Florida would get hit by a hurricane because it hosted "Gay Days." But what sort of God does Robertson belive in?

In Defense of the Original, Secular Pledge of Allegiance (2002)

Lowder defends the original, secular Pledge of Allegiance. He argues that inserting the words "under God" into the Pledge of Allegiance was an unconstitutional establishment of religion.

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A Response to Jeffery Jay Lowder's "In Defense of the Original, Secular Pledge of Allegiance" (2003) by Donn Day (Off Site)

Day argues that "under God" is not an establishment of religion. Moreover, the First Amendment does not stop the government from endorsing belief over nonbelief.


Is 'Freethinker' Synonymous with Nontheist? (2001)

Quoting Bertrand Russell, Lowder argues that theists can be freethinkers and that not all nontheists are freethinkers.

'Secular' Does Not Mean 'Atheistic' (2000)

Debate is raging through the country over the recent Supreme Court decision not to allowstudent-led prayer on the football field. Lowder challenges the opposition by clarifying the difference between a secular government and an atheistic one, thereby showing the fallacies of the arguments being raised.

The Pledge of Allegiance, the Courts, and Death Threats (2002)

Lowder discusses the recent public backlash against the Pledge of Allegiance decision, including death threats against the Plaintiff.


Can Man Live Without God? by Ravi Zacharias (1999)

New Evidence That Demands a Verdict by Josh McDowell (2001)

The Case for Christ by Lee Strobel (Updated: June 4, 2002)

Free Advertising Isn't the Point (2000)

Lowder responds to a recent Hanegraaff "Bible Answer Man" radio show segment with The Case for Christ author Lee Strobel. After a caller mentioned Lowder's book review on the Internet and asked Strobel to respond, he and Hanegraaff went to great lengths to avoid talking about it or mentioning "Lowder" or the "Secular Web" by name, claiming that it would be "free advertising" to do so. Why are these gentlemen afraid of us? What are they trying to hide from their listeners?

Atheism, Morality, and Meaning by Michael Martin (2003)

On Two Reviews of Atheism, Morality and Meaning by Michael Martin (2003)

Michael Martin responds to reviews by Taner Edis and Jeffery Jay Lowder of his book Atheism, Morality and Meaning, answering Lowder's specific criticisms which, according to Martin, are based at least in part on "serious misunderstandings."

Reply to Martin on Atheism and Morality (2003)

Lowder responds to Martin's recent reply to his review of Martin's book, Atheism, Morality and Meaning, answering Martin's objections.

See Also

A Fond Farewell to Jeffery Jay Lowder (2000) by James Still

On January 15, after five years of building the Secular Web from the ground up, Internet Infidels President Jeffery Jay Lowder will retire. Jeff has decided it is time to move on and is interested in going back to school to study philosophy. He also looks forward to finishing several papers and other projects.

Internet Infidels: A Decade of Internet Infidels (MP3) (2005)

InfidelGuy (Reginald Finley) discusses the 10 Year Anniversary of the Secular Web with Internet Infidels founder Jeffery J. Lowder (Real Audio), Executive Director Keith Augustine, and Publicity Director Clark Adams. Topics discussed include the history, purpose, and current projects of Internet Infidels, the usefulness of religious debates, the online community fostered by the Internet Infidels Discussion Forum, and the future of the Secular Web. Questions and comments from callers are included.

The Lowder-Fernandes Debate: Naturalism vs. Theism: Which Way Does the Evidence Point? (1999)

Order your copy of the videotape of this debate today!

T.J. Walker's Radio Interview of Lowder (July 12, 1999) (Off Site) (16 minutes Real Audio file)

NOTE: You will need a Real Audio player to listen to this interview. To download a Real Audio player on your system, please go to

T.J. Walker talks to Lowder about the history and purpose of Internet Infidels, Inc.; the meanings of terms 'atheism' and 'agnosticism'; Pat Robertson; whether we should ignore the Radical Religious Right; Margaret Downey's battle against discrimination by the Boy Scouts of America; whether having "In God We Trust" printed on all U.S. currency really matters; what the Secular Web has to offer; how the Internet offers freethinkers a level playing field in the marketplace of ideas; the fact that nontheists are the last minority in the USA which it is politically correct to hate; how freethinkers can support the Secular Web.

Jeffery Jay Lowder is a cofounder and Past President of Internet Infidels, Inc.