Gregory S. Paul

Gregory Paul is an independent researcher whose technical research has been published in Science, Philosophy and Theology, The Journal of Medical Ethics, and the online Evolutionary Psychology and Journal of Religion and Society. Popular essays have appeared in Washington Post/On Faith, the Wall Street Journal, Edge, and Science and Religion Today. These and additional items are available at

Published on the Secular Web

The Shroud of Turin: The Great Gothic Art Fraud — Because If It’s Real the Brain of Jesus Was the Size of a Protohuman’s!

This note is intended to describe why, from an artistic and anatomical perspective, the shroud image is an embarrassingly obvious fraud committed by a Gothic artist following the standard conventions of his time. The artistic errors are so severe that it is impossible for the shroud to record the image of an actual human body—unless it was a very seriously pathological person with a brain the size of a Homo erectus.