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Richard Carrier Sup


(Bibliography of Skepticism in the Ancient World) (1998)

Richard Carrier

(copyright 1999)



Sage, Saint, and Sophist: Holy Men and their Associates in the Early Roman Empire, Graham Anderson, New York, Routledge, 1994, 289 p.

Annas, Julia, “Doing Without Objective Values: Ancient and Modern Strategies,” in The Norms of Nature: Studies in Hellenistic Ethics, Malcolm Schofield, and Gisela Striker (editor), Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1986.

___, “Stoic Epistemology,” in Epistemology, Stephen Everson (editor), New York, Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Armstrong, A. Hilary, “On Not Knowing too Much About God,” in The Philosophy in Christianity, G. Vesey (editor), New York, Cambridge University Press, 1989, pp. 129-145.

A History of God: the 4000 Year Quest of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, Karen Armstrong, New York, A.A. Knopf, 1993, 460 p.

Scepticism, Rules and Language, Gordon P. Baker, and P. M. S. Hacker, New York, B. Blackwell, 1984, 140 p.

Barnes, Jonathan, “Scepticism and Naturalism,” in Annales Universitatis Budapestinensis de Rolando Eötvös Nominatae: Sectio Philosophica et Sociologica, Vol. 22/23, 1990, pp. 5-19.

Baumbach, L., “Quacks Then as Now? An Examination of Medical Practice, Theory and Superstition in Plautus’ Menaechmi,” in Acta Classica, Vol. 26, 1983, pp. 99-104.

Beard, M., “Cicero and Divination: The Formation of a Latin Discourse,” in Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 76, 1986, pp. 33-46.

Beaufret, Jean, “L’Atheisme et la Question de L’Etre,” in Les Etudes Philosophiques, Vol. 21, 1966, pp. 325-339.

Berry, R. J., “Miracles: Scepticism, Credulity or Reality?,” in Different Gospels: Christian Orthodoxy and Modern Theologies, Andrew Walker (editor), London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1988, pp. 112-119.

Bett, Richard, “Scepticism as a Way of Life and Scepticism as ‘Pure Theory’,” in Homo Viator: Classical Essays for John Bramble, Michael Whitby; Philip Hardie, and Mary Whitby (editors), Oak Park, IL, Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 1987, pp. 49-57.

___, “Scepticism and Everyday Attitudes in Ancient and Modern Philosophy,” in Metaphilosophy, Vol. 24, No. 4, October, 1993, pp. 363-381.

Historia and Fabula: Myths and Legends in Historical Thought from Antiquity to the Modern Age, Peter G. Bietenholz, New York, Brill, 1994, 434 p.

Blackham, H. J., “What Is Agnosticism?,” in Free Inquiry, Vol. 1, Summer, 1981, pp. 31-33.

Bloch, Raymond, “Marvels and Divination in Ancient Italy,” in Diogenes, Vol. 16, Winter, 1956, pp. 39-58.

Borne, Etienne, “Le Pantheisme est-il un Atheisme,” in Les Etudes Philosophiques, Vol. 21, 1966, pp. 341-355.

Bremmer, J. N., “Oude Vrouwen in Griekenland en Rome,” in Lampas, Vol. 17, 1984, pp. 96-113.

Bres, Yvon, “Platon et la Deinotês Tragique,” in Revue Philosophique de la France et de l’Étranger, Vol. 116, No. 4, October-December, 1991, pp. 435-462.

Brinton, Alan, “St. Augustine and the Problem of Deception in Religious Persuasion,” in Religious Studies, Vol. 19, December, 1983, pp. 437-450.

Buchowski, Michal, “Controversy Concerning the Rationality of Magic,” in Ethnologia Polona, Vol. 12, 1986, pp. 157-167.

Caujolle- Zaslawsky, Francoise, “L’Interpretation du Scepticisme comme Philosophie du Doute Religieux,” in Revue de Théologie et de Philosophie, 1977, pp. 81-112.

“Certainty Made Simple,” in Certainty and Surface in Epistemology and Philosophical Method, A. P. Martinich, and Wallace I. Matson (editors), Lewiston, Mellen Press, 1991.

The Scientist and the Supernatural: a Systematic Examination of the Relation Between Christianity and Humanism, Cecil Clark, London, Epworth Press, 1966.

Epistemology and Skepticism: An Enquiry into the Nature of Epistemology, George Chatalian, Carbondale, Southern Illinois University Press, 1991.

Clausen, Christopher, “Agnosticism, Religion, and Science: Some Unexamined Implications,” in Rocky Mountain Review of Language and Literature, Vol. 30, 1976, pp. 73-85.

Testimony: A Philosophical Study, C. A. J. Coady , Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1994, 315 p.

Cook, John G., “Some Hellenistic Responses to the Gospels and Gospel Traditions,” in Zeitschrift für die Neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde, Vol. 84, No. 3-4, 1993, pp. 233-54.

Couloubaritsis, Lambros, “L’Art Divinatoire et la Question de la Vérité,” in Kernos, Vol. 3, 1990, pp. 113-22.

After Life in Roman Paganism: Lectures Delivered at Yale University on the Silliman Foundation, Franz Cumont, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1922.

Davis, Bernard, “Scientific Knowledge, Moral Knowledge: is there Any Need for Faith?,” in Free Inquiry, Vol. 9, Spring, 1989, pp. 30-36.

Delbos, Genevieve, “”Eux Ils Croient…Nous On Sait…”,” in Ethnologie Francaise, Vol. 23, No. 3, 1993, pp. 367-383.

Dellis, I. G., “Hê Pyrrôneios Gnôsiologia kai hoi Paragontes Diamorphôseôs Autês,” in Platon, Vol. 29, 1977, pp. 118-130.

Language, Thought and Falsehood in Ancient Greek Philosophy, Nicholas Denyer, London, Routledge, 1990, 256 p.

Ess, Josef van, “Scepticism in Islamic Religious Thought,” in God and Man in Contemporary Islam, C. Malik (editor), Beirut, American University of Beirut, 1972, pp. 83-98.

The Faith of Epicurus, Benjamin Farrington, London, Weidenfeld Nichol, 1967.

Fascher, Erich, “Der Vorwurf der Gottlosigkeit in der Auseinandersetzung bei Juden, Griechen und Christen,” in Abraham unser Vater: Juden und Christen im Gesprach uber die Bibel: Festschrift für Otto Michel zum 60. Geburtstag, Otto Betz; Martin Hengel, and Peter Schmidt (editors), Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1963, pp. 78-105.

The Ghost Story in Classical Antiquity, Debbie Felton, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1995.

Ferre, Frederick Pond, “God and the Verification Principle: Verification, Faith, and Credulity,” in Religion in Life, Vol. 32, No. 1, Winter, 1962-1963, pp. 46-57.

Forgie, J. William, “The Principle of Credulity and the Evidential Value of Religious Experience,” in International Journal for Philosophy of Religion, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1986, pp. 145-59.

Roman Historical Myths: the Regal Period in Augustan Literature, Matthew Fox, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1996, 269 p.

Frede, Michael, “The Empiricist Attitude Towards Reason and Theory,” in Apeiron, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1988, pp. 79-97.

History and Belief: the Foundations of Historical Understanding, Robert Eric Frykenberg, Grand Rapids, Mich., W.B. Eerdmans, with the Institute for Advanced Christian Studies, 1996, 377 p.

Myth and Poetry in Lucretius, Monica Gale, New York, Cambridge University Press, 1994, 260 p.

Alternative Realities: The Paranormal, the Mystic and the Transcendent in Human Experience, Leonard George, New York, Facts on File, 1995, 360 p.

Girard, M. C., “La Femme dans le Corpus Hippocraticum,” in Cahiers des Études Anciennes, Vol. 15, 1983, pp. 69-80.

Glôssa kai Pragmatikotêta Stên Hellênikê Philosophia (Language and Reality in Greek Philosophy): Papers Read at the Second International Philosophy Symposium (May, 1984), Athens, Hellenike Philosophike Hetaireia, 1985, 324 p.

Gokhale, Pradeep P., “The Philosophical Position of Jayarasibhatta,” in Indian Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 5, April, 1978, pp. 489-498.

Golden, M., “Another Mythological Echo in Acts 14,” in Civiltà Classica e Cristiana, Vol. 3, 1982, pp. 203-204.

Grodzynski, D., “Superstitio,” in Revue des Études Anciennes, Vol. 76, 1974, pp. 36-60.

Grover, Stephen, “Religious Experiences: Skepticism, Gullibility, or Credulity?,” in Faith in Theory and Practice: Essays on Justifying Religious Belief, Elizabeth S. Radcliffe, and Carol J. White (editors), Lasalle, Ill, Open Court, 1993, pp. 103-115.

Religious Belief and Religious Skepticism, Gary Gutting, Notre Dame, Ind., University of Notre Dame Press, 1982.

Hankinson, R. J., “Stoicism, Science, and Divination,” in Apeiron, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1988, pp. 123-60.

Method, Medicine, and Metaphysics: Studies in the Philosophy of Ancient Science, Robert J. Hankinson (editor), Edmonton, Alberta Academic Printing, 1988, 194 p.

Myth and Philosophy: a Contest of Truths, Lawrence J. Hatab, La Salle, Ill., Open Court Publishers, 1990, 383 p.

Henige, David, “Gambit Declined: Pervasive Doubt About Systematic Doubt,” in Paths Toward the Past: African Historical Essays in Honor of Jan Vansina, Atlanta, African Studies Association, 1994, pp. 77-95.

Der Fluss der Erkenntnis: vom Mythischen zum Rationalen Denken, Jost Herbig, Hamburg, Hoffmann and Campe, 1991, 350 p.

Faith and Reason from Plato to Plantinga: an Introduction to Reformed Epistemology, Dewey J. Hoitenga, Albany, NY, State University of New York Press, 1991.

Der Einfluss der Grieschischen Skepsis auf die Entwicklung der Philosophie bei den Arabern, Saul Horovitz, Breslau, 1915, 49 p.

Horst, Pieter Willem van der, “The Unknown God (Acts 17:23),” in Knowledge of God in the Graeco-Roman World, R. Broek; T. Baarda, and J. Mansfeld (editors), New York, Brill, 1988, pp. 19-42.

Huby, P. M., “The Paranormal in the Works of Aristotle and his Circle,” in Apeiron, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1979, pp. 53-62.

The Humanism of Cicero, Harold Arthur Kinross Hunt, Carlton, Australia, Melbourne University Press, 1954.

Irwin, T. H., “Homonymy in Aristotle,” in Review of Metaphysics, Vol. 34, 1981, pp. 523-544.

Jocelyn, H. D., “Varro’s Antiquitates Rerum Divinarum and Religious Affairs in the late Roman Republic,” in Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, Vol. 65, 1982, pp. 148-205.

Johnson, D., “The Greek Origins of Belief,” in American Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 24, No. 4, 1987, pp. 319-27.

Keene, Geoffrey Bourton, “The Agnostic Fallacy,” in Philosophy, Vol. 65, July, 1990, p. 366-70.

Faith and Reason, Anthony Kenny, NY, Columbia University Press, 1983.

Kirwan, Christopher, “Falsehood Unmasked,” in Phronesis, Vol. 36, 1991, pp. 319-27.

The Incredulous Reader: Literature and the Function of Disbelief, Clayton Koelb, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1984, 240 p.

Külling, Heinz, “Zur Bedeutung des Agnostos Theos: eine Exegese zu Apostelgeschichte 17:22-23,” in Theologische Zeitschrift, Vol. 36, March-April, 1980, pp. 65-83.

Kurtz, Paul, “The Original Sins: Gullibility and Nincompoopery,” in Religious Humanism, Vol. 9, Winter, 1975, pp. 2-9.

Kvanvig, Jonathan L., “Credulism,” in International Journal for Philosophy of Religion, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1984, pp. 101-109.

Lapointe, Roger, “Divination Savante et Populaire,” in Foi Populaire, Foi Savante, J. Tillard (editor), Paris, Editions du Cerf, 1976, pp. 73-91.

Lateiner, Donald, “The Perception of Deception and Gullibility in Specialists of the Supernatural (Primarily) in Athenian Literature,” in Nomodeiktes: Greek Studies in Honor of Martin Ostwald, Ralph M. Rosen, and Joseph Farrell (editors), Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 1993, pp. 179-195.

Le Boeffle, A., “Pline et l’Astrologie,” in Helmantica, Vol. 37, 1986, pp. 173-184.

Le Glay, M., “Magie et Sorcellerie à Rome au Dernier Siècle de la République,” in Mélanges Offerts à Jacques Heurgon: L’Italie Preromaine et la Rome Republicaine, Rome, Ecole Francaise de Rome, 1976, pp. 525-550.

Lefkowitz, Mary R., “Impiety and ‘Atheism’ in Euripides’ Dramas,” in Classical Quarterly, Vol. 39, No. 1, 1989, pp. 70-82.

Ley, H., “Patristische Literatur als Quelle für die Geschichte von Aufklärung und Atheismus: zur Paradoxen Funktion des Corpus Areopagiticum,” in Das Korpus der Griechischen Christlichen Schriftsteller: Historie, Gegenwart, Zukunft: eine Aufsatzsammlung, Johannes Irmscher, and Kurt Treu (editors), Berlin, Akademie-Verlag, 1977, pp. 77-89.

Linderski, J., “Cicero and Roman divination,” in La Parola del Passato, Vol. 37, 1982, pp. 12-38.

Losin, Peter, “Experience of God and the Principle of Credulity: a Reply to Rowe,” in Faith and Philosophy, Vol. 4, January, 1987, 59-70.

Luehrmann, Dieter, “Superstitio, die Beurteilung des Frühen Christentums Durch die Römer,” in Theologische Zeitschrift, Vol. 42, 1986, pp. 191-213.

Dreams and Suicides: the Greek Novel from Antiquity to the Byzantine Empire, Suzanne MacAlister, New York, Routledge, 1996, 235 p.

Mandel, J., “State Religion and Superstition as Reflected in Cicero’s Philosophical Works,” in Euphrosyne, Vol. 12, 1983-1984, pp. 79-110.

Martin, Michael, “The Principle of Credulity and Religious Experience,” in Religious Studies, Vol. 22, March, 1986, pp. 79-93.

Matson, Wallace I., “Certainty Made Simple,” in Certainty and Surface in Epistemology and Philosophical Method: Essays in Honor of Avrum Stroll, A. P. Martinich, and Michael J. White (editors), Lewiston, NY, E. Mellen Press, 1991.

A Rhetorico-Semiotic Inquiry into Ancient Greek Sophistic and Philosophic Discourses: Gorgianic and Aristotelian Theories of Language, B. Dennis Mccutchen, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 1994.

Prometheus Rebound: the Irony of Atheism, Joseph C. McLelland, Groton, Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1988.

Meijer, P. A., “Philosophers, Intellectuals and Religion in Hellas,” in Faith, Hope and Worship: Aspects of Religious Mentality in the Ancient World, H. S. Versnel (editor), Leiden, Brill, 1981, pp. 216-263.

The Limitations of Science, Louis Trenchard More, New York, H. Holt and Company, 1915, 268 p.

Morgan, George W., “On Trusting,” in Humanitas, Vol. 9, November, 1973, pp. 237-251.

Muir, John V., “Religion and the New Education: the Challenge of the Sophists,” in Greek Religion and Society, P. Easterling, and John Victor Muir (editor), New York, Cambridge University Press, 1985, pp. 191-218.

Németh, Belá, “Schein und Wahrheit in Ovids Fasti,” in Acta Classica Universitatis Scientiarum Debreceniensis, Vol. 22, 1986, pp. 63-67.

Plato on the Human Paradox, Robert J. O’Connell, New York, NY, Fordham University Press, 1997, 162 p.

Palmer, Darryl W., “Atheism, Apologetic, and Negative Theology in the Greek Apologists of the Second Century,” in Vigiliae Christianae, Vol. 37, No. 3, 1983, pp. 234-259.

Pocock, J. G. A., “Superstition and Enthusiasm in Gibbon’s History of Religion,” in Eighteenth-Century Life, Vol. 8, No. 1, Oct., 1982, pp. 83-94.

Sophistic Rhetoric: the Language of Power and Play in a Democratic Setting, Frank Lee Porter, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, 1990.

Faith in Theory and Practice: Essays on Justifying Religious Belief, Elizabeth S. Radcliffe, and Carol J. White (editors), Lasalle, Ill, Open Court, 1993, 235 p.

Hellenistic Ways of Deliverance and the Making of the Christian Synthesis, John Herman Randall Jr., London, Columbia University Press, 1970.

Rosen, Stanley, “Suspicion, Deception, and Concealment,” in Le Miracle Grec, Antoine Thivel (editor), Paris, Les Belles Lettres, 1992, pp. 59-68.

Rosner, Judith Anne, Magic and the Supernatural: Critical Studies in Ovid, Seneca and Lucan, Toronto, Canada, University of Toronto, 1979.

Rothenstreich, Nathan, “On Practical Reason,” in Du Vrai, du Beau, du Bien: Études Philosophiques Présentées au Professeur Evanghélos A. Moutsopoulos, Paris, J. Vrin, 1990, pp. 215-27.

Rowe, William L., “Religious Experience and the Principle of Credulity,” in International Journal for Philosophy of Religion, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1982, pp. 85-92.

Salzman, Michele R., “Superstitio in the Codex Theodosianus and the Persecution of Pagans,” in Vigiliae Christianae, Vol. 41, 1987, pp. 172-188.

Santirocco, Matthew S., “Literacy, Orality, and Thought,” in Ancient Philosophy, Vol. 6, 1986, pp. 153-60.

Savon, Hervé, “L’Athéisme Jugé par les Chrétiens des Premiers Siècles,” in Athéisme et Agnosticisme: Colloque de Bruxelles, Mai 1986, Jacques Marx (editor), Bruxelles, Editions de l’Universite de Bruxelles, 1987, pp. 11-24.

Scheid, J., “Religion et Superstition à l’Époque de Tacite: Quelques Réflexions,” in Religión, Supersticion y Magia en el Mundo Romano, Cadiz, Departamento de Historia Antigua, Universidad de Cadiz, 1985, pp. 19-34.

Knowledge and Belief, Frederick Schmitt, New York, Routledge, 1992.

Schneider, Ivo, “The Contributions of the Sceptic Philosophers Arcesilas and Carneades to the Development of an Inductive Logic Compared with the Jainalogic,” in Indian Journal of History of Science, Vol. 12, 1977, pp. 173-180.

Schofield, M., “Cicero For and Against Divination,” in Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 76, 1986, pp. 47-65.

Wings of Illusion: The Origin, Nature, and Future of Paranormal Belief, John F. Schumaker, Buffalo (NY), Prometheus Books, 1990, 183 p.

Shermer, Michael, “How to Be a Skeptic,” in Natural History, Vol. 106, April, 1997, pp. 8-9.

Smith, Morton, “Historical Method in the Study of Religion,” in History and Theory, Vol. 8, 1968, pp. 8-16.

Stander, Hendrik Frederik, A Critical Study of the Patristic Sources for the Supernatural Charisms in the Worship of the Early Christian Church, University of Pretoria, 1985.

Thérasse, Jean, “Croyances et Crédulités des Romains, d’Après Pline l’Ancien et les Écrivains Latins,” in Mélanges d’Études Anciennes Offerts à Maurice Lebel, Jean-Benoît Caron; Michel Fortin, and Gilles Maloney (editors), Quebec, Les Editions du Sphinx, 1980, pp. 283-319.

Thuillier, Jean-Paul, “Notes sur Lucrèce et la Satire Antireligieuse (De Rerum Natura V, 1198-1203),” in Mélanges de Philosophie, de Litterature et d’Histoire Ancienne Offerts a Pierre Boyance, André J-M.; A. Balland et al., Rome, Ecole Francaise de Rome, 1974, pp. 703-710.

T’ien, Ch’ang-wu, “Wang Ch’ung: an Ancient Chinese Militant Materialist,” in Chinese Studies in Philosophy, Vol. 7, Fall-Winter, 75-76, pp. 4-197.

Vervaecke, G., “Logodaidaloi: la Critique du Langage dans la Grèce Classique,” in Le Langage dans L’Antiquité Classique, Pierre Swiggers, and Alfons Wouters (editors), Louvain, Leuven University Press, 1990, pp. 134-63.

Believing in Magic: The Psychology of Superstition, Stuart A. Vyse, New York, Oxford University Press, 1997, 272 p. or 257 p.

Wackenheim, Charles, “La Foi Entre l’Incroyance et la Crédulité: Repères Théologiques,” in Revue des Sciences Religieuses, Vol. 64, July-October, 1990, pp. 307-317.

Wallis, Richard T., “Plotinus and Paranormal Phenomena,” in Essays in Ancient Greek Philosophy, Vol. 2, 1983, pp. 495-507.

Wasserstein, A., “Le Role des Hypotheses dans la Medecine Grecque,” in Revue Philosophique de la France et de l’Étranger, Vol. 97, January-March, 1972, pp. 3-14.

Phantasia in Classical Thought, Gerard Watson, Galway, Galway University Press, 1988, 176 p.

Winiarczyk, M., “Who Was Regarded as an Atheist in Ancient Times: 2. Supplements And Additions,” in Philologus, Vol. 136, No. 2, 1992, pp. 306-310.

Wivagg, Dan, “Lies, Skepticism and Science,” in The American Biology Teacher, Vol. 50, Feb., 1988, p. 74.

The Unnatural Nature of Science: Why Science Does not Make (Common) Sense, Lewis Wolpert , Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1994, 191 p.

Zaner, Richard M., “Parted Bodies, Departed Souls: The Body in Ancient Medicine and Anatomy,” in The Body in Medical Thought and Practice, Drew Leder (editor), Dordrecht, Kluwer, 1992.

Der Riss im Christentum Griechen gegen Hebraer, Eberhard Zellweger, New York, P. Lang, 1984, 320 p.


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