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Christian Apologetics and Apologists, Criticisms of




Apologetics in General

Beyond Born Again: Towards Evangelical Maturity (1993) by Robert Price

Review of Michael J. Murray's Reason for the Hope Within (2005) by Graham Oppy

The anthology Reason for the Hope Within aims to mount a broad defense of the Christian faith, in part by explaining how it can be reasonable for Christians to accept puzzling or paradoxical Christian doctrines, and in part by persuading nonbelievers that all of the core claims of Christianity are true. Oppy explains why he thinks that the book utterly fails to accomplish one of these aims, and thus fails to do much to advance the standing of Christian apologetics.



Lynn Anderson

Objection #8: I Still Have Doubts, So I Can't Be A Christian (2001) by Kyle Gerkin

Part of Gerkin's comprehensive review of Lee Strobel's The Case for Faith, Strobel's interview with Lynn Anderson is analyzed and critiqued.

Objection #2: Since Miracles Contradict Science, They Cannot be True (4th ed., 2006) by Paul Doland

Part of Doland's comprehensive review of Lee Strobel's The Case for Faith, Strobel's interview with Lynn Anderson is analyzed and critiqued.



Greg Bahnsen

Are There Really No Atheists? (1996) by Michael Martin

Martin refutes Greg Bahnsen's argument that there are no atheists.

Atheism and Intraorganizational Free Speech (1996) by Michael Martin

Although Greg Bahnsen was careful to argue that the Bible allows atheists freedom of belief, he claimed that laws should be enacted making blasphemy a capital offense.

Does Induction Presume the Existence of the Christian God? (1997) by Michael Martin

Michael Martin describes and refutes the inductional form of the Transcendental Argument for God's existence.



W. David Beck

Beck's Argument for God (1999) by Richard Carrier

Refutes Beck's inept deployment of the first cause, design, and objective morality arguments for the existence of God.



Francis Beckwith

Beckwith on Historiography (1999, 2005) by Richard Carrier

Compares Beckwith's incompetent discussion of historical method in defense of miracles with the proper methods a historian should adopt, outlining what this means for attempts to prove miracles happened in history.



Michael Behe [ Index ]


E. Calvin Beisner

Preaching to the Choir (1997) by Robert McNally

Review of E. Calvin Beisner's Answers for Atheists, Agnostics, and Other Thoughtful Skeptics : Dialogs About Christian Faith and Life.



Walter L. Bradley

Objection #3: Evolution Explains Life, So God Isn't Needed (2001) by Kyle Gerkin

Part of Gerkin's comprehensive review of Lee Strobel's The Case for Faith, Strobel's interview with Bradley is analyzed and critiqued.

Objection #3: Evolution Explains Life, So God Isn't Needed (4th ed., 2006) by Paul Doland

Part of Doland's comprehensive review of Lee Strobel's The Case for Faith, Strobel's interview with Bradley is analyzed and critiqued.



David Clark

Clark's Survey of Other Religions (1999) by Richard Carrier

Criticises Clark's argument that Christian miracles have better historical evidence than miracles in other religions.



Paul Copan

That Colossal Wreck (1997) by Doug Kreuger

Ravi Zacharias's A Shattered Visage: The Real Face of Atheism is an unsuccessful attempt to refute or discredit atheism. He concentrates on some of the more prounounced problems with atheism, as he perceives them, and in the course of this review I will show why some of his approaches fail. I say 'some' because I will address only the most salient errors. A thorough refutation of all of the mistakes in his 200-page book would require another 300 pages or more, as these sorts of things are short in the telling and long in the refuting."

Addressing Those Colossal Misunderstandings: A Response to Doug Krueger (1999) by Paul Copan

Paul Copan responds to Doug Krueger's critique of Ravi Zacharias' book A Shattered Visage: The Real Face of Atheism. Copan argues that Krueger's own arguments regarding the book's purported philosophical and theological shortcomings lack convincingness.

Copin' with Copan (1999) by Doug Krueger

Doug Krueger reviewed A Shattered Visage: The Real Face of Atheism by Ravi Zacharias. Paul Copan, of the Ravi Zacharias International Ministries, wrote a defense of the book, and this is Krueger's response. The extended discussions of the relevant subjects serve not only to reinforce the original review, but will also serve as valuable analyses in their own right. Subjects include the relation of Hitler to atheism, biblical reliability, ethics and atheism, and others.



Winfried Corduan

The Problem with Miracles: the Shaky Groundwork of Corduan and Purtill (1999) by Richard Carrier



William Lane Craig [ Index ]


Stephen T. Davis

The Great Mars Hill Resurrection Debate (2012) (PDF) by Robert Greg Cavin and Carlos A. Colombetti

In these slides for his opening statement in his debate with Michael Licona on July 1, 2012 at Antioch Temecula Church in Temecula, California, Robert Greg Cavin presents one of the strongest cases against the resurrection of Jesus ever presented, decisively refuting arguments for the Resurrection by prominent Christian apologists Timothy McGrew, Lydia McGrew, Richard Swinburne, William Lane Craig, Stephen T. Davis, Gary Habermas, Michael Licona, Norman Geisler, Josh McDowell, and Lee Strobel. Cavin makes three main contentions: (1) the prior probability of a supernatural resurrection of Jesus by God is so astronomically low that it has virtually no plausibility; (2) theorizing such a resurrection to explain the empty tomb and postmortem appearances of Jesus is ad hoc and devoid of nearly any explanatory power and scope; and (3) a far superior alternative theory can account for the empty tomb and postmortem appearances. In defending these three contentions, Cavin refutes sixteen myths perpetuated by Christians apologists about critics' objections to the Resurrection.

An Inquiry into Davis' Account of the Possibility of Rational Belief and Rational Scepticism in the Resurrection of Jesus (1998) by Tyler Wunder

An interesting consideration of the central thesis of Davis's book, that "both the supernaturalist's belief and the naturalist's doubt in the resurrection can be rational given an awareness of the best cases for both sides."



William Dembski [ Index ]


Phil Fernandes

The Fernandes-Martin Debate on the Existence of God (1997)

The transcript of the lively 1997 Internet debate between Phil Fernandes and Michael Martin on the existence of God.

Review of The God Who Sits Enthroned (1998) by James Still

"Whatever opinion the reader takes of the author's work, he is to be commended for enthusiastically approaching such a broad range of topics in so few pages. In discussions of this sort, brevity and clarity are often lost in the fray. Atheists and theists alike should find much to consider within Dr. Fernandes's book."



Norman L. Geisler

The Great Mars Hill Resurrection Debate (2012) (PDF) by Robert Greg Cavin and Carlos A. Colombetti

In these slides for his opening statement in his debate with Michael Licona on July 1, 2012 at Antioch Temecula Church in Temecula, California, Robert Greg Cavin presents one of the strongest cases against the resurrection of Jesus ever presented, decisively refuting arguments for the Resurrection by prominent Christian apologists Timothy McGrew, Lydia McGrew, Richard Swinburne, William Lane Craig, Stephen T. Davis, Gary Habermas, Michael Licona, Norman Geisler, Josh McDowell, and Lee Strobel. Cavin makes three main contentions: (1) the prior probability of a supernatural resurrection of Jesus by God is so astronomically low that it has virtually no plausibility; (2) theorizing such a resurrection to explain the empty tomb and postmortem appearances of Jesus is ad hoc and devoid of nearly any explanatory power and scope; and (3) a far superior alternative theory can account for the empty tomb and postmortem appearances. In defending these three contentions, Cavin refutes sixteen myths perpetuated by Christians apologists about critics' objections to the Resurrection.

Objection #4: God Isn't Worthy of Worship If He Kills Innocent Children (2001) by Kyle Gerkin

Part of Gerkin's comprehensive review of Lee Strobel's The Case for Faith, Strobel's interview with Geisler is analyzed and critiqued.

Objection #4: God Isn't Worthy of Worship If He Kills Innocent Children (4th ed., 2006) by Paul Doland

Part of Doland's comprehensive review of Lee Strobel's The Case for Faith, Strobel's interview with Geisler is analyzed and critiqued.



R. Douglas Geivett

Geivett's Exercise in Hyperbole (1999) by Richard Carrier

Criticises Geivett's shameless abuse of historical method in his defense of the resurrection of Jesus as miracle.



Duane Gish [ Index ]


Gary Habermas

Criticism of "Immortality" (1993) by Jim Lippard

The Great Mars Hill Resurrection Debate (2012) (PDF) by Robert Greg Cavin and Carlos A. Colombetti

In these slides for his opening statement in his debate with Michael Licona on July 1, 2012 at Antioch Temecula Church in Temecula, California, Robert Greg Cavin presents one of the strongest cases against the resurrection of Jesus ever presented, decisively refuting arguments for the Resurrection by prominent Christian apologists Timothy McGrew, Lydia McGrew, Richard Swinburne, William Lane Craig, Stephen T. Davis, Gary Habermas, Michael Licona, Norman Geisler, Josh McDowell, and Lee Strobel. Cavin makes three main contentions: (1) the prior probability of a supernatural resurrection of Jesus by God is so astronomically low that it has virtually no plausibility; (2) theorizing such a resurrection to explain the empty tomb and postmortem appearances of Jesus is ad hoc and devoid of nearly any explanatory power and scope; and (3) a far superior alternative theory can account for the empty tomb and postmortem appearances. In defending these three contentions, Cavin refutes sixteen myths perpetuated by Christians apologists about critics' objections to the Resurrection.

Review of Habermas' chapter in In Defense of Miracles (1995, 2005) by Richard Carrier



Hank Hanegraaff

Is Atheism Logical? (1996) by Mark I. Vuletic

Response to Hank Hanegraaff's claim that atheism is incoherent.



Kent Hovind

"How Good Are Those Young-Earth Arguments?" (1995) by Dave Matson



Philip Johnson [ Index ]


D. James Kennedy

Commentary on D. James Kennedy's "Why I Believe" by Anachronist



John Koster

The Koster-Zindler Debate (1990) with annotations by Frank Zindler



Peter Kreeft

A Response to "The Skeptic's Prayer" by Robby Berry

Objection #1: Since Evil & Suffering Exist, A Loving God Cannot (2001) by Kyle Gerkin

Part of Gerkin's comprehensive review of Lee Strobel's The Case for Faith, Strobel's interview with Kreeft is analyzed and critiqued.

Objection #1: Since Evil & Suffering Exist, A Loving God Cannot (4th ed., 2006) by Paul Doland

Part of Doland's comprehensive review of Lee Strobel's The Case for Faith, Strobel's interview with Kreeft is analyzed and critiqued.

Why I Am Not a Christian (2000) by Keith Parsons

In this explanation of why he is not a Christian, Keith Parsons discusses the role that Christianity has played in perpetuating suffering throughout human history, the bizarre doctrine of inflicting eternal punishment on persons for having the wrong beliefs, the composition, inconsistencies, and absurdities of the New Testament Gospels, William Lane Craig's flawed case for the resurrection of Jesus, the role of legendary development and hallucinations in early Christianity, and C.S. Lewis' weak justifications for the Christian prohibition on premarital sex.



C.S. Lewis

Mere Assertions (1992) (Off Site) by Dan Barker

Review of Mere Christianity (1979) by Gaunilo II

A Critique of Miracles (2000) by Nicholas Tattersall

Lewis tackles "the philosophical question" of miracles by concluding that naturalism suffers from "cardinal difficulties" and that supernaturalism is therefore the only reasonable position. Tattersall argues, however, that the prior probability of an unexplained event being a miracle is very low, even if we were to suppose that supernaturalism is true. Even if Lewis were successful in his arguments for supernaturalism, he would not have established that Christian miracles are at all likely.

Why I Am Not a Christian (2000) by Keith Parsons

In this explanation of why he is not a Christian, Keith Parsons discusses the role that Christianity has played in perpetuating suffering throughout human history, the bizarre doctrine of inflicting eternal punishment on persons for having the wrong beliefs, the composition, inconsistencies, and absurdities of the New Testament Gospels, William Lane Craig's flawed case for the resurrection of Jesus, the role of legendary development and hallucinations in early Christianity, and C.S. Lewis' weak justifications for the Christian prohibition on premarital sex.



Hal Lindsey

Review of The Late Great Planet Earth (1980) by Gaunilo II



John Maisel

Criticism of "Is Jesus God?" (1993) by Jim Lippard



Josh McDowell

Answers to Tough Questions (1982) by Gordon Stein

Evidence That Demands a Verdict (1995-2004) edited by Jeffery Jay Lowder

The Great Mars Hill Resurrection Debate (2012) (PDF) by Robert Greg Cavin and Carlos A. Colombetti

In these slides for his opening statement in his debate with Michael Licona on July 1, 2012 at Antioch Temecula Church in Temecula, California, Robert Greg Cavin presents one of the strongest cases against the resurrection of Jesus ever presented, decisively refuting arguments for the Resurrection by prominent Christian apologists Timothy McGrew, Lydia McGrew, Richard Swinburne, William Lane Craig, Stephen T. Davis, Gary Habermas, Michael Licona, Norman Geisler, Josh McDowell, and Lee Strobel. Cavin makes three main contentions: (1) the prior probability of a supernatural resurrection of Jesus by God is so astronomically low that it has virtually no plausibility; (2) theorizing such a resurrection to explain the empty tomb and postmortem appearances of Jesus is ad hoc and devoid of nearly any explanatory power and scope; and (3) a far superior alternative theory can account for the empty tomb and postmortem appearances. In defending these three contentions, Cavin refutes sixteen myths perpetuated by Christians apologists about critics' objections to the Resurrection.

The Great Preposterous (1997) by Robert M. Price

"Apologetics as practiced by Josh McDowell is merely an exercise in after-the-fact rationalization of beliefs held on prior emotional grounds ... The more seriously one takes him as a representative of his faith, the more seriously one will be tempted to thrust Christianity aside as a tissue of grotesque absurdities capable of commending itself only to fools and bigots."

The Jesus of History: A Reply to Josh McDowell (1982) by Gordon Stein

Josh McDowell's Charade (1982) by Gordon Stein

More Than a Carpenter (1980) by Gaunilo II

New Evidence That Demands a Verdict, The (2001) reviewed by Jeffery Jay Lowder

Prophecy: Fact or Fiction (1982) by Bernard Katz

Reason Skeptics Should Consider Christianity by James Still

The Resurrection Factor (1982) by Jerry Borchandt

Skepticism and McDowell's "Proof" (1982) by Jerry Wayne Borchardt

Thallus and Phlegon (1999) by Richard Carrier

Were Not 1st Century Witnesses to the Gospel Tradition as Josh McDowell Claims in Evidence That Demands a Verdict by Richard Carrier

A Verdict on Josh McDowell (1999-2000) (Off Site) by Gordon B. Hazen

A detailed rebuttal to some of McDowell's specific claims in chapter 4 in Evidence That Demands a Verdict.



Alister McGrath

Atheism: Twilight or Dawn? (2007) by Keith Parsons

According to Alister McGrath, the early 21st century marks the decline of atheism. In this critique of McGrath's arguments, Keith Parsons considers whether the intellectual clout, stature, or influence of atheism has in fact declined in recent years, concluding that McGrath does not even begin to address the real intellectual case for atheism. That disbelief in God is just as much a matter of faith as belief in God can only be a stale platitude from McGrath given his failure to even superficially survey the best arguments for atheism. McGrath does address, however, four charges made by Richard Dawkins against religion, including the charge that evolution makes God unnecessary as an explanation and that religion is a source of much of the misery in the world. Parsons concludes that once one appropriately qualifies or refines Dawkins' accusations, McGrath's critique fails to adequately address the underlying problems for religion that inspire them. Moreover, to the extent that the influence of inherently controversial and divisive religions on people's lives grows, a corresponding dawn of the popularity of atheism is inevitable.

On Christian Theology: An Introduction (2014) by Michael Reynolds

Theology professor Alister McGrath's Christian Theology: An Introduction is a clear and comprehensive theology textbook that is balanced, at least, when presenting conflicting Christian opinions. This review by Michael Reynolds from the perspective of a nonbeliever is not intended to be comprehensive, but focuses on McGrath's treatment of issues found to be incomplete or misleading, or otherwise his omissions of discussion (or even mention) of large and important topics within Christianity. Some of these topics include the pernicious effects of Christian theology on social progress (such as equal rights for men and women), the conflict between science and religion, Christianity's history of suppression of thought by imprisonment, torture, and murder, religious wars, and rationalization of the conquest of non-Christian cultures. In short, McGrath neglects a large swath of issues close to the heart of Christianity in a way that suggests that Christian theology is taught in order to promote a set of fictions.



Glen Miller

He Commends Me--He Commends Me Not (2001) by Tim Simmons

Faults are found in Miller's attempt to reconcile an apparent contradiction between God's commending of Jehu for the killings at Jezreel (2 Kings 10:30) and condemning his actions one hundred years later via the prophet Hosea (Hosea 1:4).



John Warwick Montgomery

Critique of John Warwick Montgomery's Legal Evidences for Christianity (1998) by Richard Packham

Montgomery asserts that Christianity's claims survive examination using the legal tests for evidence. He does this only by misstating and twisting the rules of evidence and the facts.

First of All, Let's Laugh at All the Lawyers (Or, Cheap Legal Thrills at the Expense of Justice) (Off Site) by James Patrick Holding

Holding criticises Packham's argument in the above essay.

Response to "Packham Refuted" (2001) (Off Site) by Richard Packham

Packham responds to Holding's critique above.

Faith And History (c. 1986) by Mark Hutchins

A Critique of John Warwick Montgomery's Apologetics in such works as his History and Christianity.



J.P. Moreland

Criticism of "Immortality" (1993) by Jim Lippard

Criticism of "Scaling the Secular City" (1990) by Jim Lippard

Review of J.P. Moreland (ed.) The Creation Hypothesis (1998) by Graham Oppy

Secular Humanism, Christian Theism, and the Meaning of Life (2000) by J. Wesley Robbins

Robbins refutes J.P. Moreland's claim that, so far as the meaning of life is concerned, the best way to live one's life is in terms of Christian theism.

Does the Christian Theism Advocated by J.P. Moreland Provide a Better Reason to be Moral than Secular Humanism? (1998) by Richard Carrier

Carrier refutes Moreland's claim that theism offers more and better reasons to live a moral life than atheism or secular humanism.

The Moral Argument for God's Existence, the Natural Moral Law, and Conservative Metaphysical Naturalism (2004) (Off Site) by Arnold T. Guminski

This is a downloadable PDF of an expanded version of a lecture for the University of Colorado Theology Forum in which Guminski proposes to show why the moral argument for God's existence is unsound. Particular attention is given to the writings of J. P. Moreland, William Lane Craig, and Paul Copan.

Moreland's "Christian Science" (1999) by Richard Carrier

Carrier challenges Moreland's claim that science can prove Christianity true, as well as his arguments for a 'libertarian' conception of freewill.

Objection #6: A Loving God Would Never Torture People In Hell (2001) by Kyle Gerkin

Part of Gerkin's comprehensive review of Lee Strobel's The Case for Faith, Strobel's interview with Moreland is analyzed and critiqued.

Objection #6: A Loving God Would Never Torture People In Hell (4th ed., 2006) by Paul Doland

Part of Doland's comprehensive review of Lee Strobel's The Case for Faith, Strobel's interview with Moreland is analyzed and critiqued.



Michael J. Murray

Review of Michael J. Murray's Reason for the Hope Within (2005) by Graham Oppy

The anthology Reason for the Hope Within aims to mount a broad defense of the Christian faith, in part by explaining how it can be reasonable for Christians to accept puzzling or paradoxical Christian doctrines, and in part by persuading nonbelievers that all of the core claims of Christianity are true. Oppy explains why he thinks that the book utterly fails to accomplish one of these aims, and thus fails to do much to advance the standing of Christian apologetics.



Ronald Nash

Nash on naturalism v. Christian Theism (1999) by Richard Carrier



Robert Newman

Newman on Prophecy as Miracle (1999) by Richard Carrier

Discusses the criteria that must actually be met to believe a prophecy miraculous, then demonstrates that there is nothing miraculous about the prophecies in Hosea 3:4-5 and Isaiah 40-56, the "seventy sevens" prophecy in Daniel 9:24-6, or various "twin cities" arguments (Tyre and Sidon, Babylon and Nineveh, Memphis and Thebes, and Ekron and Ashkelon).



David Noebel

David Noebel on Atheism and Biological Evolution (2000) by Jeffery Jay Lowder

A critical notice of David Noebel's book, Understanding the Times. I assess in detail Noebel's objections to atheism and biological evolution. Along the way I discuss such diverse topics as the argument from reasonable nonbelief, cosmic vs. personal meaning, methodological naturalism, abiogenesis and the origin of life, whether natural selection is a tautology, beneficial mutations, the fossil record, and punctuated equilibrium.

Review of Clergy in the Classroom (2000) by Sally Morem

A review of Clergy in the Classroom: The Religion of Secular Humanism by David A. Noebel, J.F. Bladwin, and Kevin Bywater.



Rod Parsley

Review of Silent No More (2006) by Kenneth Krause

The latest release from the senior pastor of the World Harvest Church might not inspire great thoughts, but it certainly invites a great deal of criticism. A litany of deficiencies could be ennumerated: citing the founding fathers only when it suits him; glossing over the Bible's endorsement of slavery and the Christian Crusaders' brutality; showing little sign of compassion for the poor; demonizing entire segments of society because he dislikes their "lifestyle"; and so on. After noting the irony of Parsley's characterization of Islam as a violent superstition, Krause supplements Parsley's chapter on education with a history of Christian attitudes to public education. Peddling the standard fare in evangelical circles on abortion and the media, Parsley leaves little doubt that he intends Silent No More to do nothing more than play off its audience's fears as a vehicle for his own (unreflective) ideas.



Alvin Plantinga [ Index ]


Richard Purtill

The Problem with Miracles: the Shaky Groundwork of Corduan and Purtill (1999) by Richard Carrier



Hugh Ross [ Index ]



R.C. Sproul

Review of R.C. Sproul's Not a Chance (2000) by Graham Oppy

Oppy reviews Sproul's book about the role of causation and chance in modern science, and, in particular, in modern cosmology.



Lee Strobel

Another Case Not Made: A Critique of Lee Strobel's The Case for a Creator (2005) by Paul Doland

In this chapter-by-chapter critique of Lee Strobel's The Case for a Creator, Paul Doland comments on the general direction of the book before analyzing Strobel's interviews with his various experts on specific topics. Topics include the origin of life, evolution, the relationship between science and religion, the origin of the universe, the alleged fine-tuning of the universe, whether there is intelligent life elsewhere in the universe, intelligent design, information theory, the origin and nature of consciousness, and whether consciousness can survive the death of the brain. Particularly noteworthy is Strobel's silence when his experts make conflicting claims (e.g., Wells and Dembski on evolution).

The Case Against Faith: A Critical Look at Lee Strobel's The Case for Faith (4th ed., 2006) by Paul Doland

Lee Strobel's The Case for Faith aims to answer the "toughest objections to Christianity" through interviews with well-known Christian apologists. In the introduction, Strobel lists what he calls Christianity's "Big Eight Conundrums"--including many of the questions that I continually asked myself when I was still a Christian. Though Strobel generally does a good job of explaining the objections, the more I contemplated his interviewees' responses, the less satisfying I found those responses to be. This point-by-point critique aims to explain why I found each of these responses to be weak at best or preposterous at worst, and I am consequently forced to conclude that Strobel may have actually produced a case against faith.

Free Advertising Isn't the Point (2000) by Jeffery Jay Lowder

Lowder responds to Strobel's comments about Lowder's review on the "Bible Answer Man" radio show.

The Great Mars Hill Resurrection Debate (2012) (PDF) by Robert Greg Cavin and Carlos A. Colombetti

In these slides for his opening statement in his debate with Michael Licona on July 1, 2012 at Antioch Temecula Church in Temecula, California, Robert Greg Cavin presents one of the strongest cases against the resurrection of Jesus ever presented, decisively refuting arguments for the Resurrection by prominent Christian apologists Timothy McGrew, Lydia McGrew, Richard Swinburne, William Lane Craig, Stephen T. Davis, Gary Habermas, Michael Licona, Norman Geisler, Josh McDowell, and Lee Strobel. Cavin makes three main contentions: (1) the prior probability of a supernatural resurrection of Jesus by God is so astronomically low that it has virtually no plausibility; (2) theorizing such a resurrection to explain the empty tomb and postmortem appearances of Jesus is ad hoc and devoid of nearly any explanatory power and scope; and (3) a far superior alternative theory can account for the empty tomb and postmortem appearances. In defending these three contentions, Cavin refutes sixteen myths perpetuated by Christians apologists about critics' objections to the Resurrection.

Objections Sustained! (2001) by Kyle J. Gerkin

A thorough and detailed critique of Lee Strobel's The Case For Faith: A Journalist Investigates the Toughest Objections to Christianity. This review actually ranges across almost all the issues between Christians and atheists, and Gerkin directs readers to all the relevant sections of the Secular Web, making this an excellent introduction to our website and arguments for unbelief.

Still Failing the Bar Exam (2002) by J. P. Holding (Off Site)

J. P. Holding (aka Robert Turkel) responds to Gerkin's critique of Lee Strobel's The Case for Faith.

Holding Overruled! (2002) by Kyle J. Gerkin

Gerkin responds to Holding's critique, "Still Failing the Bar Exam."

Objection Dismissed on Appeal (2006) by James Hannam

Though Kyle J. Gerkin's critique of Lee Strobel's The Case for Faith has a great deal to recommend it, and probably even represents the conventional wisdom in skeptical circles, his reply to objection #7 contains a number of factual errors. While earlier historians would have agreed with many of Gerkin's points, current research in the history of science and religion that has yet to percolate into the public consciousness casts doubt upon much of what he says. In this essay Hannam outlines Gerkin's various errors of fact, distinguishing his own views from the relatively uncontroversial conclusions of historians.

The Rest of the Story (1999) by Jeffery Jay Lowder

I review Lee Strobel's The Case for Christ. I conclude that "Strobel did not interview any critics of Evangelical apologetics. He sometimes refutes at great length objections not made by the critics (e.g., the claim that Jesus was mentally insane); more often, he doesn't address objections the critics do make (e.g., the unreliability of human memory, that non-Christian historians do not provide any independent confirmation for the deity of Jesus, etc.) Perhaps this will be a welcome feature to people who already believe Christianity but have no idea why they believe it. For those of us who are primarily interested in the truth, however, we want to hear both sides of the story."



Richard Swinburne [ Index ]


Robert Turkel (aka J.P. Holding)

Skeptical Reviews Regarding Robert Turkel's Tekton Apologetic Ministry (Off Site)

This site, devoted to critiques of Turkel's work, hosts or links to approximately three dozen articles of interest.

Holding Overruled! (2002) by Kyle Gerkin

Gerkin responds to Holding's critique, "Still Failing the Bar Exam."

The Not-So-Impossible Faith (2002) by Brian Holtz

Holtz dissects Christian apologist Robert Turkel's "The Impossible Faith: Or How Not to Start an Ancient Religion" wherein Turkel attempts to "explain why Christianity succeeded where it should have clearly failed or died out." Holtz concludes that Turkel's argument ultimately fails, that the ability of Christianity to overcome the "disadvantages" which Turkel lists is entirely consistent with Jesus being a merely human preacher, faith healer, and apocalyptic prophet whose followers transformed a belief in his spiritual resurrection into the myth of his physical resurrection.

Turkel and the Trilemma (2002) by Brian Holtz

This essay summarizes a long debate between Brian Holtz and Christian apologist Robert Turkel (aka J. P. Holding). Here, Holtz effectively rebuts the Trilemma argument ("Was Jesus Lord, liar, or lunatic?"). As Holtz puts it, Robert Turkel's latest response contains no less than 137 polemical blunders, each categorized and separately identified here.

The Turkey Challenge (Off Site) by Farrell Till

"If Turkel refuses this challenge, people are going to wonder why his mouth is so big but the courage of his convictions is so small."

Was Christianity Too Improbable to Be False? (2006) by Richard Carrier

Was the success of Christianity too improbable for Christianity to have been false? According to James Holding's "Impossible Faith," no one would have accepted early Christianity if it were not true. In particular, he offers seventeen hostile conditions, plus an additional critical assumption about the role of luck, that he claims would have made it impossible for Christianity to succeed--unless it was true. In this remarkably extensive chapter-by-chapter critique, Richard Carrier evaluates Holding's arguments in light of historical scholarship and identifies several troubling fallacies in Holding's reasoning.

Why I Don't Buy the Resurrection Story 6th ed. (2006) [ Index ]

There are many reasons that I am not a Christian. I am an atheist for reasons more fundamental than anything to do with particular religions, but the arguments in favor of the Christian creed as opposed to any other are ubiquitous and always center around the historical claim that Jesus was raised from the dead. As an historian with a good knowledge of Greek, I am now very qualified to make a professional judgement in the matter. This essay explains why I find the Resurrection to be an unconvincing argument for becoming Christian.

Julie's River Run: On Comparing the Rubicon to the Resurrection (2005) by Robert Turkel (Off Site)

Turkel discusses an analogy used by some apologists to compare the resurrection of Jesus to the crossing of the Rubicon by Caesar as well as skeptical critiques of that analogy, including Carrier's critique. Turkel contends that "the evidence for the Resurrection is as good as, or better than, that for Caesar crossing the Rubicon."

The Rubicon Analogy (2006) by Richard C. Carrier

Against Carrier's argument in the Main Argument of Why I Don't Buy the Resurrection Story, James Holding claims (in "Julie's River Run: On Comparing the Rubicon to the Resurrection") that we have as much evidence that Jesus rose from his grave as we have that Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon. There are numerous errors in Holding's argument. Carrier's rebuttal responds briefly to the most important issues. In the end, Carrier's claim remains unchallenged: we have more evidence that Caesar crossed the Rubicon than we have that Jesus rose from the grave. Therefore, the claim that this resurrection is "as well attested" as the Rubicon crossing is still false.



John D. Woodbridge

Objection #7: Church History Is Littered with Oppression and Violence (2001) by Kyle Gerkin

Part of Gerkin's comprehensive review of Lee Strobel's The Case for Faith, Strobel's interview with Woodbridge is analyzed and critiqued.

Objection Dismissed on Appeal (2006) by James Hannam

Though Kyle J. Gerkin's critique of Lee Strobel's The Case for Faith has a great deal to recommend it, and probably even represents the conventional wisdom in skeptical circles, his reply to objection #7 contains a number of factual errors. While earlier historians would have agreed with many of Gerkin's points, current research in the history of science and religion that has yet to percolate into the public consciousness casts doubt upon much of what he says. In this essay Hannam outlines Gerkin's various errors of fact, distinguishing his own views from the relatively uncontroversial conclusions of historians.

Objection #7: Church History Is Littered with Oppression and Violence (4th ed., 2006) by Paul Doland

Part of Doland's comprehensive review of Lee Strobel's The Case for Faith, Strobel's interview with Woodbridge is analyzed and critiqued.



Ravi Zacharias

An Emotional Tirade Against Atheism (1999) by Jeffery Jay Lowder

Ravi Zacharias's book, Can Man Live Without God?, is reviewed. I comment on the book's treatment of the following issues: the evidentialist challenge; the Lack of Evidence argument; the problem of evil; various versions of the cosmological, teleological, and moral arguments; historical evidence for the reliability of the Bible; Pascal's wager; and Bertrand Russell's ethical theory.

That Colossal Wreck (1997) by Doug Krueger

Ravi "Zacharias's A Shattered Visage: The Real Face of Atheism is an unsuccessful attempt to refute or discredit atheism. He concentrates on some of the more prounounced problems with atheism, as he perceives them, and in the course of this review I will show why some of his approaches fail. I say 'some' because I will address only the most salient errors. A thorough refutation of all of the mistakes in his 200-page book would require another 300 pages or more, as these sorts of things are short in the telling and long in the refuting."

Objection #5: It's Offensive To Claim Jesus Is the Only Way to God (2001) by Kyle Gerkin

Part of Gerkin's comprehensive review of Lee Strobel's The Case for Faith, Strobel's interview with Zacharias is analyzed and critiqued.

Objection #5: It's Offensive To Claim Jesus Is the Only Way to God (4th ed., 2006) by Paul Doland

Part of doland's comprehensive review of Lee Strobel's The Case for Faith, Strobel's interview with Zacharias is analyzed and critiqued.


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